Vaccine is the medical product that stimulates a person’s immune system to produce immunity to a specific disease and protects the individual from a particular disease. Vaccines are usually administered through needle injections (Intramuscular/IM Injections), but can also be administered by mouth (p.o) or sprayed into the nose.
As per the latest scientific recommendations the most vaccines should be given via the intramuscular route into the deltoid or the anterolateral aspect of the thigh. This optimises the immunogenicity of the vaccine and minimizes adverse reactions at the injection site. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of administering vaccines correctly. Clinical practice needs to reflect considerations about the right length and gauge of needles used to ensure that those vaccinated get the immunological benefit of the vaccines without local side effects.
Injecting a vaccine into the layer of subcutaneous fat, where poor vascularity may result in slow mobilisation and processing of antigen, is a cause of vaccine failure—for example in hepatitis B, rabies, and influenza vaccines. Compared with intramuscular administration, subcutaneous injection of hepatitis B vaccine leads to significantly lower seroconversion rates and more rapid decay of antibody response.
Basic and other chemical components of Vaccines-
The antigen (protein) –active ingredient
Suspending fluid (sterile water, saline, or fluids containing protein)
Preservatives and stabilizers (albumin, phenols, and glycine)
Adjuvants -to improve vaccine-effectiveness (Aluminum gels/salts of aluminum)
Small amounts of culture material-to grow virus or bacteria (chicken egg protein)
Antibiotics-to prevent bacterial growth during production and storage of the vaccine
Vaccines, like drugs, can cause adverse events. Vaccines and drugs all contain multiple ingredients and each class of ingredient may cause their own adverse events.
Vaccine safety monitoring is critical in ensuring that the gains of immunization are sustained in the interest of public health and disease eradication which is the ultimate goal of all immunization programs, and based upon the WHO and CDC guidelines. Safety is the prime concern, for an instance, Egg protein found in vaccines prepared using chicken eggs e.g. influenza and yellow fever vaccines may cause “egg allergy”. Other components such as Formaldehyde, used to inactivate bacterial products for toxoid vaccines; Monosodium glutamate (MSG) and 2-phenoxy-ethanol used as stabilizers in a few vaccines and Thimerosal-A mercury-containing preservative are also the examples.
Hence, Vaccines and drugs all have to comply with standards of safety, quality and Efficacy-for medicines and protective efficacy for vaccines. Causality assessment of adverse events to vaccines is difficult and requires special expertise. Regular and careful surveillance is mandatory for all vaccines.
The IM Injection program-1 day/2 days/3 days- training/ certification/ workshop at Springfield College helps prepare you get skills needed for a challenging career in a physician’s office, hospital or medical clinic. Students learn details and techniques of IM injections, various vaccines, vaccines for children and adults, safe and effective IM Injection techniques, patient communication and preparations in healthcare.
For details of the IM Injection training program and the best training-
SPRINGFIELD COLLEGE OF HEALTH CARE, MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
Health Care Department
1- Bartley Bull Parkway, Suite # 19,
(Oppo. Shoppers World Brampton, Above Food Basics)
Brampton, ON, L6W 3T7